Set out below is a general description of the evolution of my ideas on the topic of planetary motion and Solar activity over the last eight years.
Note: If you are kind enough to read the following in full you, might want to do so in light of the fact that at every revelation, twist and turn along my journey of discovery, I found that there were others before me who had independently come to the same or similar realizations and/or conclusions.
and SIM = Solar Intertial Motion
THE EARLY YEARS – Linking SIM and Solar Activity [2005 - 2007]
In 2005-6, when I first started this research, I believed that solar activity was (somehow) being modulated/influenced by the Sun’s SIM (i.e. Barycentric) motion. Since, the Sun’s Barycentric motion is primary controlled by the Jovian planets (dominated by Jupiter and Saturn), I argued that there was a link between the orbital motion of the Sun about the Barycentre (represented by the moment-arm of Jupiter upon the Sun as it moved about the Barycentre) and the rotation rate of the outer layers of the Sun. We called this link a SPIN-ORBIT COUPLING because it appeared that the rotation rate of the surface layers of the Sun [i.e. the SPIN] was linked the orbital motion of the Sun about the Barycentre [i.e the ORBIT]. Unfortunately we could not provide a valid physical mechanism to explain this link. All we had was an observational link [see figure 8 of the paper cited directly below] however this was strong enough for our paper to get through peer-review, after a messy two year battle with the editors of three different journals.
Wilson, I.R.G.,Carter, B.D., and Waite, I.A., Does a Spin-Orbit Coupling Between the Sun and the Jovian Planets Govern the Solar Cycle?, Publications of the Astronomical Society ofAustralia, 2008, 25, 85 – 93.
It soon became apparent to me (around 2008) that there was no viable physical mechanism to directly link SIM with changes in the level of solar activity. Einsteins Principle of Equivalence had to be violated if there was such a connection.
However, I still firmly believed that there must be a connection between the motion of the planets and the level of solar activity. This meant that it must have something to do with the planetary tides – even if their weakness made them an unlikely candidate.
This created a dilemma. The strongest planetary tides acting upon the Sun were those of Jupiter, Venus and the Earth, while the dominant direct gravitational influence on the Sun’s SIM was that produced by Jupiter and Saturn.
Given that I knew that there was an observation link between the rotation rate of the surface layers of the Sun and the SIM of the Sun, and the fact that I believed that it was the changes in solar rotation that were moderating the level of solar activity – I could come to only one conclusion.
The tidal forces of the planets [i.e. Jupiter, Venus, and/or Earth] which were most likely responsible for the changes in the Sun’s rotation rate via tidal torquing had to be somehow linked with the gravitational forces that were producing the Sun’s SIM [i.e. Jupiter and Saturn].
This is when I discovered that the synodic and orbital periods of the Terrestrial and Jovian planets were link through a remarkable series of near resonances. [Note: while the discovery was made independently, there were others who had already gone down this path]:
Although I did not fully appreciate the role that tidal-torquing played in this model, preferring to believe that it was peaks in the strength of the planetary tides caused by alignments between Jupiter, Venus and the Earth that were responsible for modulating solar activity.
THE VEJ TIDAL-TORQUING MODEL [2011-2013]
Some time in 2011, I finally realized that in order to produce large enough changes in the rotation rate of the outer (equatorial) layers of the Sun, you need to have the strongest gravitational force acting upon the Sun [i.e. Jupiter] acting upon the biggest possible tidal bulge that could be produced by the remaining planets [i.e. alignments of Venus and the Earth].
This slowing down and speeding up of the outer layers of the Sun could only be accomplished by a TIDAL-TORQUING mechanism similar to the mechanism by which the Moon slowed down the Earth’s Rotation through its GRAVITATIONAL action upon the Earth’s oceans via the TIDAL BULGES.
However, in the case of the Sun, Jupiter provides the GRAVITATIONAL FORCE that slows and speeds up the Sun’s rotation rate, while alignments of VENUS and EARTH produced the tidal bulges.
This VEJ TIDAL-TORQUING MODEL slightly modified the train of logic so that it became:
Orbital Periods of Jovian Planets —> SIM
Orbital Periods of Jovian Planets (Primarily Jupiter) —-> Orbital Periods of Terrestrial Planets (Primarily Venus and Earth) —> Solar Tides in the base of the Convective Zone of the Sun near the Tachocline —> Tidal Torquing (via the VEJ TIDAL TORQUING MODEL) —> Equatorial Solar Rotation Rate —> Level of Solar Activity
So, from about 2008, on-wards, I have been arguing that the connection between SIM and solar activity is an ILLUSION.
It wasn’t until 2011, that I finally realized that this ILLUSION was created by the logic train cited directly above.
Hence, it is important that a context or model is developed to show how the gravitational and tidal forces of planets act upon the Sun to influence the general level of solar activity.
I believe that I have provided one possible MODEL which does just that: